People have long called the Fergana Valley «Golden Valley» not because of its gold placers, but because it is a fertile land with favorable climatic conditions, fertile soils, and powerful water streams flowing down from the mountain ranges. The bowl-shaped valley is surrounded by the Tien Shan spurs from the north and the Pamir-Alai mountain system from the south. One of the largest rivers of Central Asia — Syr Darya is formed as a result of the confluence of two rivers: Karadarya and Naryn, rolling their waters through the territory of the valley, the area of which is equal to 77.9 thousand square kilometers. This region began to be settled by people as early as VI-V centuries BC. Ancient Persian and Greek chronicles speak about high culture of development of the region and chroniclers call it «paradise garden» because of abundance of flowering gardens. Ancient Ferghans cultivated mainly grapes and alfalfa. It was these crops and a special breed of horses that were popular in neighboring countries, especially in China. In turn, the inhabitants of the ancient valley borrowed silk production from the Chinese. The Great Silk Road from China to the Mediterranean countries passed through the Fergana Valley until the sea route to India was opened (15th century). Since that time the gradual decline of economy and culture began. The final desolation of the region came after the invasion of Genghis Khan’s hordes. Only in the 16th century trade relations with nomadic peoples were resumed. From the XVII century Fergana started trade with the Moscow state, and already in the XVIII century trade with China, Afghanistan, Khiva and Bukhara. In 1875 Fergana region — the last stronghold of the Kokand Khanate — was colonized by the troops of tsarist Russia. With the Russians, the railroad «came» to the region and cotton growing, horticulture, viticulture and silk farming became highly productive. Fergana valley as well as the whole Central Asia became a raw material appendage of Russian textile industry. Only after the civil war the opportunities for the development of production forces and the development of the economy of the region opened up. In connection with the national division, carried out in 1924, the territory of the Fergana Valley was divided between Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. The central, most flat part, where the Uzbek population predominates, was assigned to Uzbekistan. Nowadays, agriculture in the Fergana Valley stands out among other regions of the republic for its high culture, productivity and profitability (cotton farming is the mainstay). Enterprises of the region carry out a full cycle of cotton processing — from cleaning to production of textile, knitted and garment products. The mining and metalworking industry occupies a large place. The Fergana Valley is well known for its oil and gas deposits, and the Fergana oil refinery is the largest in Central Asia. tour to the Fergana Valley.


The earliest references to Kokand date back to the 10th century. Arab travelers and geographers wrote about a small town called Khokand or Khovakand, which was located on the site of present-day Kokand. Later, apparently, it fell into decay and disappeared. The city appeared again in 1732 on the site of the fortress Iski-Kurgan, which appeared in the XVIII century. Having become the capital of the Kokand Khanate, the city became a major trade and political center not only in the Fergana Valley, but also in the whole of Central Asia. Kokand remained an administrative center for some time after the khanate was annexed to Russia. A part of the city was built in the European style: correct layout of streets, their landscaping, well-appointed houses. More than 300 mosques and madrasahs (spiritual and parochial schools) rose majestically above the cluster of shacks of poor people, and the palace of one of the last Kokand rulers — Khudoyarkhan — sparkled with its opulent luxury.


Rishtan (34km). This ancient settlement, known since the Middle Ages, has always been famous for its pottery. From generation to generation the secrets of artisanal production of dishes, jugs, vases, etc. are passed on. Products of Rishtan ceramics have been demonstrated many times at international exhibitions and are exhibited in many museums. A wonderful souvenir to remember the Fergana Valley. Fergana Valley tour in Fergana Valley.


Fergana city is the administrative center of Fergana valley (50 km). The city began to be built up in 1877 after the valley was annexed to Russia and was then called New Margilan. Then it was renamed Skobelev and became the military-administrative center of Fergana region. From the very beginning the city was properly planned and beautifully landscaped. In 1919 it received its present name — Fergana.

Historical architectural objects

  • Norbutay-Biy madrassah (XVIII c.);
  • Juma Mosque (1st half of the XIX c.);
  • Madarikhan and Dakhmai-Shakhon mausoleum (1st half of the XIX c.);
  • Urda — palace of the last Kokand khan Khudoyarkhan (2nd half of XIX c.).
  • visit to the exhibition-sale of ceramic products
  • museum of local lore.
  • Shoda mosque (XIX c.);
  • Jami Madrasah (2nd half of XIX c.).
  • Mausoleum of Khojamna — Kabry or Khoja Amin (XVIII c.);
  • Mulla-Kirghiz madrassah (XVIII c.)

Fergana Region was formed in 1938 by Fergana Valley.

Area — 6.76 thousand km2

Administrative center — Fergana city (419 km from Tashkent).

The Fergana Valley is unique in the types of its landscapes: there are dark gray sands of the Central part, emerald green cotton fields fringed by silkworm trees, high alpine meadows, and mountain peaks covered with snow. The region is located in the south of the Fergana Valley. This region is second only to Andijan oblast in terms of dense population. A large number of rivers and grandiose irrigation facilities (South Fergana, Big Fergana canals and several reservoirs) have turned the valley into a paradise place — the «pearl» of Uzbekistan.

The climate here is the mildest in the region of the republic. Summer with moderate heat (+400С +420С), severe winters do not happen here. Atmospheric precipitation is low.

The leading role in agriculture is occupied by cotton growing, but beekeeping, silk growing, vegetable growing and melon growing are also well developed. Livestock breeding is specialized in meat and dairy cattle breeding. Sheep breeding is developed in the foothill areas.

Gas and oil, construction sands, limestone and gravel-sand mixtures, cement raw materials are extracted from the subsoil of the region.

Industrial enterprises for production of mineral fertilizers, oil refining; branches of national economy: machine-building, chemical, building materials, textile, food, consumer goods.

Higher educational institutions of the region are represented by the State University, branches of Tashkent universities, and the Pedagogical Institute.

The city of Fergana is a garden city. Picturesque alleys of century-old chenar trees, huge willows and poplars create on the streets of the city the semblance of covered galleries, with intertwined crowns maintaining microclimate in the summer heat.

Fergana was founded in 1877 under the name of New Margilan, in 1907 the city was renamed Skobelev and only in 1919 it was called Fergana. There are no ancient historical monuments here, but the suburbs are known for their picturesque places not only in Uzbekistan. Thus, in the valley of the Shakhimardansai River, on the slopes of the Alai Range there is a mountain-climatic resort (mild climatic conditions, healing clean air) «Khamzaabad».

In the central part of the valley of the river Altyaryksai, in the foothills of the Alai ridge, there is a small town Chimion, surrounded by green vineyards and gardens. Here is a balneological sanatorium «Chimion» — a well-known health resort in Central Asia (healing mineral springs).

6 km separate Fergana from the ancient city of Margilan. Many centuries ago the population of the city was engaged in cotton and silk growing, which ensured its stable development. Silkworm cocoons were processed here and silk fabrics were produced. It is not for nothing that Margilan is called the city of silk. Created by skilled craftsmen, silk fabrics are known all over the world and are in great demand.