TASHKENT – THE CAPITAL OF UZBEKISTAN
The Tashkent oasis is located at the spurs of the western Tien Shan.
More than 20 centuries ago, at the crossroads of caravan routes leading from Russia to India, from China to Rome, from Iran to Mongolia, a small settlement called Yuni arose (the first written records are from the end of the 2nd beginning of the 1st century BC).
Then its names changed: Judge, Chach, Shash, Binkent. The current name – Tashkent – was first mentioned in written sources of the 11th century. By the 14th century, a large feudal fortress city already existed here.
Since 1930, Tashkent has become the capital of the Uzbek SSR..
Nowadays it is a large modern metropolis with over 2,500,000 population.
Wars and natural disasters of past destroyed many ancient monuments here.
After the devastating earthquake in 1966, the city was essentially rebuilt.
Today’s Tashkent is constantly growing and getting prettier, adorned with new parks, fountains, boulevards and buildings built with the latest earthquake-resistant construction technology.
Historical architectural objects
- Barakkhan Madrasah (XVI century)
- Kaffal-Shashi mausoleum (XVI century)
- Kukeltash Madrasah (XVI century)
- Zengi-Ata – a cult-memorial ensemble (XIV-XX centuries)
- Sheikh Khavendi Takhur (Sheikhantaur) mausoleum (XV-XIX centuries)
- Kaldyrgach-bey mausoleum (1st half of the 15th century)
- Timurid Yunuskhan Mausoleum (XV century)
- Museum of Applied Arts
- Museum of Amir Timur (Tamerlane)
Tashkent Viloyat (region)
Founded in 1938
Total area – 15.3 thousand km 2
In the north-east of the Republic of Uzbekistan between the western spurs of the Tien Shan Tashkent province’s located, which includes 15 tumans (districts) and 17 cities.
The administrative center is Tashkent (population – more than 2 500 000).
The continental climate in the region implies hot dry summers (average +35°C) and humid mild, sometimes snowless winters (average -10°C). Only in mountainous places a stable snow cover remains.
From the northeast and north, the region is surrounded by the Chatkal ridge and its spurs – Kuraminsky, Pskemsky (4301 m – Adelunga and 4229 m – Beshtar) and Ugamsky. The main part of the territory is a foothill plain (400-600 m), smoothly descending to one of the main rivers of Uzbekistan, the Syr Darya with its tributaries: the Chirchik with a stormy water flow and the “treacherous” Akhangaran. Both rivers originate in the western foothills of the Tien Shan.
The picturesque valleys, through which the mountain rivers: Chatkal, Pskem, Ugam, Koksu flow, separate the Chatkal, Pskem, Ugam mountain ranges located in the northeast and east of the region. Mild climatic conditions and abundant rainfall provide picturesque landscapes with thickets of various fruit bushes, trees and lush grass cover for the tracts. The Chatkal Range is almost completely a mountain-forest protected area.
The region is rich in minerals, especially the Akhangaran-Almalyk region, which holds aboundand deposits of copper, silver, gold, zinc, lead, molybdenum, rare earth metals, brown coal. There is a large supply of mineral and thermal waters.
The Tashkent oasis is the largest industrial center of Uzbekistan. All ferrous metallurgy enterprises of the Republic and a small part of non-ferrous metallurgy are located on this territory. Industrial sectors are well developed: chemical, electric power, engineering, building materials, cotton ginning, light industry and food. More than 250 state industrial enterprises produce their products.
The leading branch of agriculture in the region is cotton growing, and wheat, rice (floodplains of the Chirchik and Syrdarya rivers), and vegetables are also grown. Viticulture and horticulture are well developed. The Tashkent region is the only one in the country in the production of kenaf (a spinning crop of the Malvaceae family).
Meat and dairy animal husbandry, sheep breeding, and poultry farming are widely developed.
Large research institutes are concentrated in the region: viticulture and winemaking, horticulture, animal husbandry, cotton growing, selection and seed production of cotton, rice, and sericulture.
Railways (length – 354,200 km) and roads (6,600 km)
The Great Uzbek Highway – this is the name of the main highway from Tashkent to Termez, more than 700 km long and connecting 5 regions of the Republic: Tashkent, Syrdarya, Samarkand, Kashkadarya and Surkhandarya.
In the north-east of Uzbekistan, and in particular in the Tashkent region, there is a high degree of seismicity, as the process of mountain building continues. Different intensity of tremors periodically reminds of an earthquake. Tashkent survived 2 devastating earthquakes: in 1868 and in 1966.
The city of Chinaz is located 60 km from Tashkent in the interfluve of the Syr Darya and Chirchik. From here one can clearly see the valley of the Syrdarya river, the channel of which separate Tashkent and Syrdarya regions. Here is the Chinaz fish market, famous throughout the republic, which sells many types of fresh and smoked fish – these are the gifts of the muddy waters of the Syrdarya: catfish and grass carp, pike perch and carp, asp and perch. The Syrdarya originates at the confluence of the Naryn (Petrov glacier in the Tien Shan) and Karadarya (Fergana Range), and flows into the Aral Sea-Lake. In terms of water content hight, it is second only to the Amudarya, but in terms of length (2982 km) it is the longest river in Central Asia.
Gastronomic Tour to Tashkent and Tashkent Region will surprise every GOURMET with its variety of flavors.